Read Thru The New Testament – March 18

March 18

 

The Gospel of Luke

 

Luke was the only Gentile author of any part of the New Testament.  He was the “beloved physician” (Colossians 4:14), a close friend and companion of the Apostle Paul (Acts 16:10-24; Philemon 24)…and a coworker of Mark.  We don’t know anything about his younger life or conversion…but we do know that he was not an eyewitness of the life of Jesus (1:2).  Luke wrote both this Gospel and the book of Acts.  He accompanied Paul on his missionary journeys and was with him at the time of his martyrdom (2 Timothy 4:11).  We have no details on his later life.

Luke tells us that he was motivated to write this Gospel by the writings of others…so that they might know the “exact truth about things” (1:4).  He carefully consulted with others for the information (1:2), and wrote in chronological order (1:3)…under the guidance of the Holy Spirit (1:4) so that he could adequately instruct others (1:4), in particular, Theophilus (his name means: “dear to God”, or “friend of God”…he is unknown, but the form of the address to him suggests that he was a person of high rank).  Luke was with Paul when he was imprisoned for two years (A.D. 58-60) in Caesarea…that was not far from Jerusalem.  It is possible that during this time he may have met with Mary (Jesus’ mother), if she was still alive and living with John.  He might also have met with James, the half-brother of Jesus and the pastor of the church in Jerusalem.  Both of them would have been able to provide wonderful insight into the life and ministry of Jesus.

The Gospel of Luke was probably written around 60 A.D., possibly in Caesarea during Paul’s two-year imprisonment there (Acts 24:27).

There are several distinctives of Luke’s Gospel:

1-it is written with Gentiles in mind;

2-it includes many medical matters (4:38; 7:15; 8:55; 14:2; 18:15; 22:50);

3-it gives much attention to the birth of Christ;

4-there is an emphasis on prayer (3:21; 5:16; 6:12; 9:18,28-29; 10:21; 11:1; 22:39-46; 23:34,46);

5-women are given a prominent place (1; 2; 7:11-13; 8:1-3; 10:38-42; 21:1-4; 23:27-31,49);

6-its theme is “Christ, the Son of Man”, giving emphasis to the humanity of Christ, His compassion for mankind and His provision of salvation to the whole world (19:10).

 

The special emphasis of Luke is the Humanity of Jesus. Representing Jesus as the Son of God, Luke features His Kindness toward the Weak, the Suffering and the Outcast.

While each of the Gospels was intended ultimately for All Man-kind, Matthew seems to have had in immediate view the Jews; Mark, the Romans; and Luke, the Greeks.

Jewish civilization had been built around their Scriptures. Therefore Matthew appeals to their Scriptures.

Roman civilization gloried in the idea of Government, Power. Therefore Mark calls particular attention to the Miracles of Jesus as exhibiting His Superhuman Power.

Greek civilization represented Culture, Philosophy, Wisdom, Rea-son, Beauty, Education. Therefore, to appeal to the Thoughtful, Cultured, Philosophic Greek Mind, Luke, in a complete, orderly, and classical story, which has been called the “Most Beautiful Book Ever Written,” depicts the Glorious Beauty and Perfection of Jesus, the Ideal, Universal Man.

Then, to these three Gospels, John added his, to make it clear and unmistakable that Jesus was GOD in Human Form.

(Halley’s Bible Handbook, Henry H. Halley, p. 485)

 

Outline:

The Method of Writing Concerning the Son of Man   Luke 1:1-4

The Arrival of the Son of Man                                         Luke 1:5-2:38         

      Luke 1:5-25              The Announcement of the Birth of John the Baptist

      Luke 1:26-56           The Announcement of the Birth of the Son of Man

      Luke 1:57-80           The Birth of John the Baptist

      Luke 2:1-38              The Birth of the Son of Man

The Early Development of the Son of Man                  Luke 2:39-52

      Luke 2:39-40           Growing Up in Nazareth

      Luke 2:41-52           Journey to Jerusalem

The Ministry Preparation of the Son of Man                Luke 3:1-4:13         

      Luke 3:1-22              Preparation through Baptism

      Luke 3:23-38           Preparation through Certification

      Luke 4:1-13              Preparation through Temptation

      Luke 4:14-30           Preparation through Identification

The Initial Reception of the Son of Man                        Luke 4:31-9:50       

      Luke 4:31-37           He Casts a Demon out of a Man

      Luke 4:38-41           He Heals Many Diseases

      Luke 4:42-44           He Identifies Kingdom Preaching as His Focus

      Luke 5:1-11              He Calls His Disciples

      Luke 5:12-16           He Heals a Leper

      Luke 5:17-26           He Forgives a Paralyzed Man of Sin

      Luke 5:27-39           He Receives Sinners

      Luke 6:1-11              He Explains Sabbath Law

      Luke 6:12-49           He Calls and Instructs His Disciples

      Luke 7:1-10              He Heals from a Distance

      Luke 7:11-17           He Raises a Dead Man to Life

      Luke 7:18-35           He Encourages John the Baptist

      Luke 7:36-50           He Forgives a Sinful Woman

      Luke 8:1-3                He Develops His Followers

      Luke 8:4-18              He Teaches Kingdom Growth through a Parable

      Luke 8:19-21           He Identifies Kingdom Members through His Family

      Luke 8:22-25           He Calms a Storm on the Sea

      Luke 8:26-39           He Casts Many Demons out of a Man

      Luke 8:40-56           He Raises a Dead Girl to Life

      Luke 8:40-56           He Heals a Woman from Long-term Sickness

      Luke 9:1-9                He Sends the 12 Apostles into the Villages

      Luke 9:10-17           He Performs a Miracle to Feed the Multitude

      Luke 9:18-20           He is Identified as the Messiah by Peter

      Luke 9:21-22           He Identifies the Way that He Must Die

      Luke 9:23-27           He Identifies the Way that the Disciples Must Live

      Luke 9:28-36           He is Identified as the Chosen One by God

      Luke 9:37-42           He Casts a Demon out of a Boy and Gains Popularity

      Luke 9:43-45           He Speaks about the Danger of Popularity

      Luke 9:46-48           His Warns the Disciples against Seeking Popularity

      Luke 9:49-50           He Accepts Others Ministering in His Name

The Growing Resistance Against the Son of Man     Luke 9:51-11:54    

      Luke 9:51-56           Resistance from the Samaritans

      Luke 9:57-62           Resistance from the Non-committed

            Luke 10:1-24-The Ministry of the 70

      Luke 10:25-37         Resistance from a Lawyer

            Luke 10:38-42-The Identification of Priorities

            Luke 11:1-13-Teaching on Prayer

      Luke 11:14-36         Resistance from Some of the Multitudes

      Luke 11:37-54         Resistance from the Pharisees and Lawyers

The Teaching for Kingdom Members by the Son of Man     Luke 12:1-19:27

      Luke 12:1-12           The Confession They Make

      Luke 12:13-34         The Treasures They Value

      Luke 12:35-48         The Faithfulness They Practice

      Luke 12:49-59         The Divisions They Cause

      Luke 13:1-9              The Necessity of Repentance

      Luke 13:10-17         The Observance of the Sabbath

      Luke 13:18-21         The Expansive Growth of the Kingdom

      Luke 13:22-30         The Only Entrance to Join the Kingdom

      Luke 13:31-35         The Fate of Jerusalem

      Luke 14:1-6              The Observance of the Sabbath

      Luke 14:7-11           The Personal Practice of Humility

      Luke 14:12-14         The Respect for All People

      Luke 14:15-24         The Invitation to Join the Kingdom

      Luke 14:25-35         The Requirements to Join the Kingdom

      Luke 15:1-32           The Love of God for All People

      Luke 16:1-31           The Practice of Wealthy Living

      Luke 17:1-6              The Practice of Forgiveness

      Luke 17:7-10           The Attitude for Service

      Luke 17:11-19         The Attitude of Gratitude

      Luke 17:20-21         The Current Presence of the Kingdom

      Luke 17:22-37         The Coming Presence of the Kingdom

      Luke 18:1-8              The Confident Practice of Prayer

      Luke 18:9-14           The Public Practice of Humility

      Luke 18:15-17         The Necessary Attitude to Join the Kingdom

      Luke 18:18-25         The Required Priority to Join the Kingdom

      Luke 18:26-30         The Promised Reward of the Kingdom

      Luke 18:31-34         The Fulfillment of Kingdom Prophecies

      Luke 18:35-43         The Determination of a Blind Man

      Luke 19:1-10           The Salvation of a Rich Man

      Luke 19:11-27         The Reward to Faithful Members

The Final Condemnation of the Son of Man                 Luke 19:28-23:56  

      Luke 19:28-44         Sunday: Entrance into Jerusalem

      Luke 19:45-48         Monday: Cleansing of the Temple

      Luke 20:1-18           Tuesday: Questions Concerning Authority (Temple)

      Luke 20:19-26         Tuesday: Questions Concerning Taxes

      Luke 20:27-40         Tuesday: Questions Concerning Resurrection

      Luke 20:41-44         Tuesday: Teaching Concerning Authority

      Luke 20:45-47         Tuesday: Warning Concerning Pharisees

      Luke 21:1-4              Tuesday: Teaching Concerning Giving

      Luke 21:5-38           Tuesday: Teaching Concerning the Future

      Luke 22:1-6              Wednesday: Betrayal by Judas

      Luke 22:7-38           Thursday: Institution of the Lord’s Supper

      Luke 22:39-46         Thursday: Prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane

      Luke 22:47-53         Thursday: Arrest in the Garden of Gethsemane

      Luke 22:54-62         Friday: Peter’s Denial at the Home of the High Priest

      Luke 22:63-65         Friday: Jesus Beaten by the Guards

      Luke 22:66-71         Friday: Jesus Tried by the Sanhedrin

      Luke 23:1-5              Friday: Jesus Tried by Pilate, #1

      Luke 23:6-12           Friday: Jesus Tried by Herod

      Luke 23:13-25         Friday: Jesus Tried by Pilate, #2

      Luke 23:26-49         Friday: Jesus Crucified on Golgotha

      Luke 23:50-55         Friday: Jesus Buried in the Tomb (day #1)

      Luke 23:56               Saturday: Jesus in the Tomb on the Sabbath (day #2)

The Ultimate Victory of the Son of Man                        Luke 24:1-53          

      Luke 24:1-12           Sunday: Women Find the Tomb Empty (day #3)

      Luke 24:13-35         Sunday: Jesus Appears to Disciples (Emmaus Road)

      Luke 24:36-43         Sunday: Jesus Appears to Disciples (Jerusalem)

      Luke 24:44-49         Sunday: Jesus Teaches His Fulfillment of Prophecy

      Luke 24:50-53         Sunday: Jesus Ascends into Heaven

 

Luke 1:1-23

 

The Method of Writing Concerning the Son of Man   Luke 1:1-4

Luke 1:1-4-Here we find Luke’s greeting to Theophilus…his explanation for why he wrote and how he went about it.  Luke wants to write a detailed account of what transpired during the earthly ministry of the life of Jesus so that those who read it can have confidence in its accuracy and authenticity.

 

New Testament Political Rulers

 

ROMAN EMPERORS RULERS OF PALESTINE
  Herod the Great [37BC – 4/1(?)BC]
  Judea Galilee & Perea Other Provinces
Augustus Ceasar

[29 BC – AD 14]

Archelaus

(Herod’s Son)

[4/1(?) BC – AD 6]

Herod Antipas (Herod’s Son)

[4/1(?) BC – AD 39]

Herod Philip

(Herod’s Son)

[4/1(?) BC – AD 34]

Coponius (Roman)

[AD 6 – 8]

Ambivius (Roman)

[AD 9 – 12]

Annius Rufus (Roman)

[AD 12 – 15]

Tiberius Ceasar

[14 BC – AD 37]

Valerius Gratus (Roman)

[AD 15 – 26]

Pontius Pilot (Roman)

[AD 26 – 36]

Caligula

[AD 37 – 41]

Marcellus (Roman)

[AD 37]

 
Cluadius

[AD 41 – 54]

Herrod Agrippa I

(Herod’s Grandson)

[AD 37 – 44]

Cuspius Fadus

(Roman)

[AD 44 – 46]

   
  Tiberius Alexander

(Roman)

[AD 46 – 48]

Herrod Agrippa II

(Herod’s Great-Grandson)

Began to rule in AD 34 in other provinces and in AD 39 in the Galilee and Perea

Ventidius Cumanus (Roman)

[AD 48 – 52]

Nero

[AD 54 – 68]

M. Antonius Felix

(Roman)

[AD 52 – 60]

Porcius Festus (Roman)

[AD 60 – 62]

Clodius Albinus (Roman)

[AD 62 – 64]

Gessius Florus (Roman)

[AD 64 -66]

   

JEWISH REVOLT [AD 66-73]

 

Galbo, Otho & Vitellius

[AD 68 – 69]

Jerusalem and the Temple destroyed AD 70. Masada, last stronghold of the Jews, falls in AD 73. Jewish survivors sold into slavery. Judea becomes the Roman province of Syria-Palestine. Vespasian and Titus build the Coliseum in Rome with the treasure looted from Judea.
Vespasian

[AD 69-79]

Titus

[AD 79 – 81]

http://www.agapebiblestudy.com/charts/New%20Testament%20Political%20Rulers.htm

 

The Arrival of the Son of Man                                         Luke 1:5-2:38         

Luke 1:5-25                    The Announcement of the Birth of John the Baptist

 

Luke 1:5-This is Herod the Great.  Zacharias was a priest (cf. Lev. 8 for information about the priesthood) who served in the “division of Abijah”.  All of the priests were divided into groups that had specific responsibilities of service in the Temple.  Their division was named after the priest who was in charge of that division.  Zacharias was married to Elizabeth, who was also a member of a family that was of the priestly lineage of Aaron.

Luke 1:6-7-Zacharias and Elizabeth were “righteous in the sight of God”.  They were an older couple (:18) who had no children.

Luke 1:8-10-Zacharias was chosen to burn the incense in the Temple.  This was a great privilege and a priest was only allowed to do so one time during his life (Ryrie).

Luke 1:11-17-An angel appears to Zacharias while he is burning the incense.  Evidently, Zacharias had been praying for his wife to have a child because the angel said, “your petition has been heard, and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son.”  They are told to name him John.  John will bring them great joy…because “he will be great in the sight of the Lord”.  He will not drink wine or strong drink…which signified that he would be a Nazarite…a person who takes a vow of commitment and dedication to serve the Lord.

 

Nazarite

(cf. Num. 6:3; for additional information on Nazarites also see: http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/smiths-bible-dictionary/nazarite.html; http://www.gotquestions.org/Nazirite-vow.html).

 

God was going to use John to prepare the hearts of the people for the coming of Jesus.  He would minister in the “spirit and power of Elijah” (cf. Matt. 11:13-14; 17:10-13; Mk. 9:11-14)…meaning that his ministry would bear the same characteristics as those of Elijah (a message of repentance).

Luke 1:18-20-Zacharias can hardly believe what is happening.  He tells the angel that he and his wife are old, past the age of childbearing.  How will he know for sure that what the angel has said will come true?  He is probably thinking that when he leaves the Temple people are going to question him concerning why he took so long to burn the incense.  He wants to tell them that an angel appeared to him and told him that he and Elizabeth were going to have a child. But he didn’t want to appear foolish to them.  What if he told them that, but then it didn’t come true?  How could he know for sure?  The angel told him that because he did not believe what he had been told he would be given a sign….which would be that he would not be able to speak until the date the child was born. This is not so much a rebuke for unbelief as it was a sign to give him confidence.  The angel identifies himself as Gabriel (Gabriel means “man of God”, cf. Dan. 8:16; 9:21)

 

For additional information about angels see:

http://www.gotquestions.org/names-of-angels.html

 

Zacharias would recognize this name from the Old Testament and realize that this was one of God’s angels that had been used in the past to deliver messages concerning God’s plans.

Luke 1:21-23-When Zacharias came out of the Temple the people were anxious because he had been in there so long.  They tried to question him, but he could not speak.  After his time of service at the Temple was completed, he and Elizabeth returned to their home in the hill country of Judah (:39).

Prayer: Lord, please help me to be righteous in Your sight.  Of all things that might be said about a person…this is perhaps the best…because righteousness is in keeping with Your own character, and it seems to include all the attributes of a life that is pleasing to You.

 

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